Adjuvant Arthritis

Adjuvant Arthritis

It is interesting to note that microbial particles have been able to induce arthritis when injected into rats. This form of arthritis is called adjuvant arthritis. It was first described in 1956 by Pearson. It was induced by an intradermal injection of killed dried mycobacteria and mineral oil. Other bacteria have been used with the same response. After a latent period of 10-14 days following the injection, inflammation appears in the ankles, wrists, tarsals, and interphalangeal joints of rats. This disease is not limited to the joints, but has extra-articular manifestations, including tendonitis, iritis, nodular lesions in the visceral organs, urethritis, and diarrhea. The rheumatoid factor is not produced in this experimental form of arthritis. The symptoms peak about 15-25 days after the injections, followed by slow resolution. The synovial lesions when viewed under the microscope are similar to those observed in human rheumatoid arthritis. Here are some examples of microbe induced arthritis (figure 9).

Figure 9

Microbe-Induced Models of Arthritis

Microbe/microbial Component
Natural Infections Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus Goat

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

Pig, dog, rabbit
Mycoplasma hyorhinis Pig
Mycoplasma synoviae Chicken
Mycoplasma arthritidis Rat
Chlamydia psittaci Cow, sheep

Bifidobacterium cell-wall components

Escherichia coli Rabbit
Eubacterium cell-wall components Rat
Killed tubercle bacilli Rat
Lipopolysaccharide Rat
Mycoplasma arthritidis Mouse, rat
Mycoplasma gallisepticum Chicken
Mycoplasma pulmonis  Mouse, rat
Neisseria gonorrhoeae  Rabbit
Salmonella enteritidis  Rat
Staphylococcus aureus Rabbit
Streptococcal cell-wall components Rat
Streptococcus pyogenes  Rabbit
Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 Rat




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     *The information in this website is not intended to replace a rheumatology textbook nor be a complete update of the rheumatology scientific literature.  It should not be misconstrued as personal medical advice.  Rather, it portrays Dr. Al Robert Franco's interests in the field of rheumatology, namely, the interrelationship between infections and rheumatic diseases and how this applies to the treatment of arthritis.